It was three years later that Samuel signed a contract with a Russian production and refining group to import their oil. It was the first time an oil carrying ship had been allowed through the Canal. There arose troubles with the Russian government and to keep his business going he looked for other sources of oil, and found one in Borneo. He acquired concession in and started a refinery at Balik Papan.
Then, to protect his existing interests and to meet the growing demand for petrol, he and his brother Samuel decided to form a new company for dealing in oil, keeping it separate from the family trading business. The first chairman was Marcus Samuel who was knighted in and later raised to the peerage as Viscount Bearsted. Also to save future business he contracted additionally with an oil field in Sumatra and later with an American firm in Texas.
Shell was not the only gasoline producer in the East. In after a troubled start the Royal Dutch Co. The Manager Kessler died in , his able assistant Henri Deterding was appointed his successor and since many activities of Shell and Royal Dutch were similar and both companies faced intense competition, Deterding envisaged a merger of Shell and Royal Dutch.
The complete identification of Shell and Royal Dutch seemed advisable and in another agreement became effective. Under the new alliance, the Royal Dutch and Shell became purely holding companies.
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From then until the company extended its activities and its trade throughout Japan. Commercial Union Assurance Co. In he moved his enterprise to Yokohama 68 and his brother Marcus became partner. The company continued trading as a private company until when owing to the great expansion of the business it was decided to incorporate the firm as a limited liability company. From the inception of its business in Japan the firm took a conspicuous part in the development of the country and came into close relationship with the Japanese government.
In the following years branches had been opened, such as at Kobe, Tokyo, Shimonoseki, etc. In he returned to GB and managed the company from London. At times he also operated auction rooms in Osaka. In he tried his luck as Freight and Produce Broker, Yokohama 30, but without enduring success and he left Japan in Er unterzeichnete am Er wurde vom Wakayama clan angestellt und da er ausgebildeter Jurist war, lehrte er Recht, Englisch und Deutsch. Danach war F. He signed a contract with the Japanese government on July 31, as instructor and his first contract ran from September 27, for 6 months.
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He was employed with the Wakayama clan and as he was a legal expert he taught Law, English and German. At that time Carl Koeppen trained the Wakayama army and when Sanders' contract expired he was succeeded by Adolph Helm. Afterwards F. In and he lived and worked in Tokyo Koishikawa, Ichome. In he left Japan again. Maynard [J. Auch lebte er noch unter dieser Adresse in Nagasaki. He came to Japan in and joined the Japan Herald , Yokohama 28 as reporter.
From until he was proprietor of the hotel San Francisco House , Yokohama In he still lived under this address in Nagasaki. Obwohl er Deutscher war, stand er unter "britischem Schutz". Er starb am Although he was German he was registered "under British protection".
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He died on In der Funktion als 2. Vom Auf Grund seines Gesundheitszustandes endete sein Vertrag im Februar Einschreibe-Brief an Monsieur Sarazin vom According to official documents, he arrived in Yokohama on June 21, He worked as a second clerk until the end of After that, a long period commenced in which he was employed by the Japanese government as an advisor and teacher for French.
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He signed his first contract with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which ran from April 13, until December and was extended until February From April 1, to September 30, he taught French at the artillery school in Tokyo. He was then again employed by the French Consulate, Yokohama 84, and as of to , as a chancellor in the French Consulate of Kobe. His next contract with the Japanese government ran as of May 1, and he was employed by the Ministry of the Imperial Household as a French teacher.
Among other things, the Ministry was also responsible for attending the Imperial princes and princesses of the second to the fourth generations, inclusively. Due to his health, his contract ended in February He also acted as a French honorary consul for Japan. Karikatur von Charles Wirgman in the "Japan Punch" - Paul Sarda at the building site of his new theatre: "The gay and festive 'Public Hall' begins to begin", reads the caption. Grand Hotel, Yokohama.
Seine Mutter starb, als er neun Jahre alt war, und auch drei seiner Geschwister starben bereits im Kindesalter. Er traf in Japan am Er wohnte zeitweilig bei J. Clataud in 33 Tsukiji und vom In Tokyo wurde am Wie er schrieb, nutzte er seine Freizeit, um den Charakter dieses einzigartigen Volkes zu studieren, er sammelte japanische Kleinkunst, Porzellan, Bronzefiguren und Bilder.
Er konnte Japanisch sprechen, obwohl er eingestand, dass er die Schrift nur in kana lesen konnte. Lescasse, Bauingenieur und Architekt, angestellt. Es wurde ein Vertrag gefunden, der vom Der Bau begann in Yamate im Jahr , musste aber zeitweise wegen Problemen mit der Finanzierung unterbrochen werden.
Sein Grabstein wurde erst wieder ausgegraben. His mother died when he was nine years old, and three of his brothers and sisters also died in their childhood. Only a grant enabled him to attend a school. The declared aim of this school was to give children of the poor rural population an education equal to those of the urban citizenship. Probably, these early years have shaped in Paul Sarda an enduring experience: education as the key to social rise.
Sarda seems to have soon developed a talent for teaching. This "school" was and is in fact one of the most renowned French elite universities.
Sarda passed the entrance examination but could not enrol. The annual fee of FF exceeded even a teacher's annual salary! In , he not only possessed an engineer's diploma, but a first professional employment as well: teacher of mathematics in Japan.
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He arrived in Japan on October 16, and the contract ran from October 17, to November 8, Among his students was also Tatsumi Hajime, who later was trained to naval engineer in Cherbourg. When his contract in Yokosuka had ended, Sarda went back to France in the beginning of , but only to return very soon again. He resided temporarily at J. Clataud at 33 Tsukiji and from June 12, to December 25, , he worked as professor of mathematics at the Tokyo University, Suruga-dai, 16, Suzuki-cho.
Sarda had brought his wife Jenny nee Ducuing to Japan. He followed his father's footsteps and became an engineer, too. After but a few years, Sarda felt already at home in Japan. As he wrote in , he used his spare time to study the character of this unique people, collecting articles of Japanese art, porcelain, bronze figurines and paintings.
He was able to speak fluently Japanese, though he confessed that he could only read Japanese written in kana. When his contract at the university ended, he worked some time at the architectural bureau of J. Lescasse at Yokohama 84 and as a sole engineer, i. Lescasse, civil engineer and architect. A contract running from January 1, to December 30, was found which Sarda had signed with the Japanese government, Ministry of Education, to teach mathematics at Izumo, Shimane-ken.
We can conclude, however, this contract couldn't be fulfilled. In Paul Sarda returned to his real vocation as he practiced from to He opened in Yokohama 46 Bluff a bureau as Architect and Surveyor and he maintained this office until , when he then moved to Yokohama A, from then staying there until his death. The construction began on Yamate in , but had to be temporarily interrupted because lack of funds. The building was amputated by a storey and so finally completed in September After the concert had finished Sarda was called to the stage and received a thriving applause.
In this theatre the first professional performance was staged in Japan with "Hamlet" in June In Sarda built an extension to Yokohama's "Grand Hotel", a house situated directly at the seaside promenade, Yokohama Bund 20, and temporarily run by Louis Eppinger. It is said to have been built by Richard P.enter
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Bridgens - nobody knows exactly who originally designed it. In collaboration with a Japanese carpenter, Sarda developed a technique to make multi-storey buildings more resistant against minor earthquakes. The core of these buildings was an internal stiff spine, built from fir, whereon the exterior stone slabs were fixed by brackets.
Two years later, in , Sarda was engaged in the reconstruction of the French consulate that had been damaged by an earthquake. A confidential letter from the consulate to the Foreign Ministry at the Quay d'Orsay in Paris listed Sarda's advantages. This man will therefore, to express it this way, become a power; he is conscious of his strength and knows that we are obliged to be grateful to him; anyway, he is at present in his situation as architect and entrepreneur without competition, even in the opinion of the other ground owners of all nationalities.
He was buried in the Yokohama Foreigners' Cemetery. His large presence made him a target of satirical cartoonists who depicted him as a bearded rotund gentleman wearing an outsized hat. In the impression of his contemporaries, many parts of Yokohama had so attained a "French flair". Even Sarda's tomb on the Yokohama foreign cemetery was buried under the rubble. His headstone was unearthed again only in More recently the well on the former French consulate grounds was excavated and a replica of the windmill built.
One of a pair of medallions that had adorned the wings of the consulate now decorates the masonry of a footbridge built at its former site. Nach dem Besuch einer kirchlichen Bildungseinrichtung in Pons in der Charente-Maritime immatrikulierte sich Savatier am Es hielt ihn nicht lange an Land. Nach der Bewilligung seines Gesuchs fand die Hochzeitsfeier statt, vermutlich in St. Das Ehepaar Savatier zeigte sich bereit, nach Japan zu gehen. Der Arztberuf in Yokosuka war offenbar recht herausfordernd. Brunet, und M. Obwohl Savatier in Japan als hervorragender Kenner der Botanik des Landes in hohem Ansehen stand, war er dennoch in seiner dienstlichen Stellung nicht unumstritten.