Analysis and Testing in Preparatory Processes. Subject index. Notes Includes bibliographical references and index. View online Borrow Buy Freely available Show 0 more links Set up My libraries How do I set up "My libraries"? Black Mountain Library. May not be open to the public ; CHEM Curtin University Library.
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Open to the public ; None of your libraries hold this item. Found at these bookshops Searching - please wait We were unable to find this edition in any bookshop we are able to search. These online bookshops told us they have this item:. Tags What are tags? Add a tag. Public Private login e. A cross-sectional image of a yarn from denim fabric. Ring dyeing can be seen through the cross-sectional image. There is thus an incredible saving in the water usage which is From this, it can be seen that there is This includes all the steps of pre-treatment, i.
The single-bath pre-treatment and dyeing method saves not only the time of treatment but also water and energy. The relative strength of these dyed samples showed good results and they were very similar or in some cases slightly higher than the control sample. The nominal reduction in the relative strength observed in few cases is due to the destruction of dye molecules taking place in case of sensitive dyes due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide in the bath or the products formed during degradation of size which are of reductive nature in the bath.
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It can also be seen that a grey unprocessed fabric can also be dyed with acceptable properties as of the RFD fabric. The combined processes lead to substantial saving in water Authors wish to acknowledge the Dept.
RSH has carried out all the practical work related to this research and drafted the manuscript, NRM and PBT have helped in clearing basic concepts related to the research, and helped in reviewing and drafting the manuscript. RVA has guided throughout the research work, has critically revised the manuscript and has given final approval of the version to be published.
RVA has agreed to be accountable for any queries related to this manuscript. All the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.
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Chemical Technology In the Pre-Treatment Processes Of Textiles by Karmakar, S R
A facile energy and water-conserving process for cotton dyeing. Open Access. First Online: 25 April Introduction The conventional three-stage desizing, scouring and bleaching operations are exceptionally intensive in water, energy and chemicals which ultimately influence the process cost. Conventional preparation of cotton-based textiles usually involves desizing of the starch size applied to the yarn during weaving, scouring of the material to remove the natural hydrophobic impurities such as fats and waxes, followed by a bleaching process to impart whiteness by destroying the natural colouring matter [ 1 , 2 , 3 ].
Modified method In the modified method, pre-treatment and dyeing was carried out in a single bath.
Chemical Technology in the Pre-Treatment Processes of Textiles, Volume 12
An average of two readings which was taken at two different positions of samples was used to calculate the Kubelka—Munk, i. The colour difference d E can be visualised as the distance between the standard or reference and the sample points plotted in the L a b colour space. L values have a range of 0—, indicates lightness or white and 0 indicates darkness or black. The L a b system adopted from the CIE in is the most widely used system today [ 19 ].
Conventional dyeing was carried out using direct dyes on a bleached fabric, i. RFD Ready for Dyeing fabric. Also, grey, desized and desized-scoured fabrics were dyed using direct dyes by same method as of the conventional dyeing. One bath pre-treatment and dyeing was also carried out. Open image in new window. This may be attributed to the fact that starch being present on the fabric as size also has affinity for the dyes as it is chemically similar to cellulose of cotton Figs.
In case of desized fabric, although large amount of starch was removed during desizing, residual starch on desizing treatment onto the fabric which can be understood by the fact that only a weight loss of This leads to higher absorption of dye on desized fabric compared to RFD fabric and thus higher colour strength. Higher relative strength of grey dyed fabric is attributed to presence of starch as size on the fabric leading to higher absorption as explained earlier. This can also hinder the penetration of the dye inside the core fibre.
Therefore, it was thought appropriate to check the penetration of dyes into the interior of fibre. From Fig. This cross-section was taken to confirm the fact that the dyeing carried out gives well penetrated dyeing and not ring dyeing. All the colour fastness properties of dyed samples, i. Due to treatment at boiling temperature during one bath dyeing process, there is improvement in the absorbency as compared to the grey undyed fabric; however, it is lesser than the control fabric. Absorbency of dyed scoured fabric is similar to the control fabric as almost all the impurities are removed up to the scouring stage and only coloured components are left out to be removed further in bleaching.
It is imperative to study the comparison of new process as against the well set conventional processes. Acknowledgments Authors wish to acknowledge the Dept. Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Zahran, M. Fibers 2 , 49—67 CrossRef Google Scholar. Prabaharan, M. Indian J. Fibre Text. Pre-Treatment of Textiles under Plasma Conditions.
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A facile energy and water-conserving process for cotton dyeing
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